Mitchell, Emily G. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2018) Spatial analyses of Ediacaran communities at Mistaken Point. Paleobiology, 44 (01). pp. 40-57. ISSN 0094-8373 DOI https://doi.org/10.1017/pab.2017.35

Harvey, Thomas H. P. and Butterfield, N. J. (2017) Exceptionally preserved Cambrian loriciferans and the early animal invasion of the meiobenthos. Nature Ecology & Evolution. ISSN 2397-334X DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-016-0022

Slater, Ben J. and Harvey, Thomas H. P. and Guilbaud, Romain and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2017) A cryptic record of Burgess Shale-type diversity from the early Cambrian of Baltica. Palaeontology, 60 (1). pp. 117-140. ISSN 0031-0239 DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/pala.12273

Adam, Zachary R. and Skidmore, Mark L. and Mogk, David W. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2017) A Laurentian record of the earliest fossil eukaryotes. Geology, 45 (5). pp. 387-390. ISSN 0091-7613 DOI https://doi.org/10.1130/G38749.1

Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2015) Proterozoic photosynthesis - a critical review. Palaeontology, 58 (6). pp. 953-972. ISSN ISSN: 0031-0239, ESSN: 1475-4983 DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/pala.12211

Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2015) The Neoproterozoic. Current Biology, 25 (19). R859-R863. ISSN 0960-9822 DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.021

Mitchell, Emily G. and Kenchington, Charlotte G. and Liu, Alexander G. and Matthews, Jack J. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2015) Reconstructing the reproductive mode of an Ediacaran macro-organism. Nature. ISSN 0028-0836 DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14646

Yang, Jie and Ortega-Hernández, Javier and Gerber, Sylvain and Butterfield, Nicholas J. and Hou, Jin-bo and Lan, Tian and Zhang, Xi-guang (2015) A superarmored lobopodian from the Cambrian of China and early disparity in the evolution of Onychophora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112 (28). pp. 8678-8683. ISSN 0027-8424 Online ISSN 1091-6490 DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1505596112

Guilbaud, Romain and Poulton, Simon W. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. and Zhu, Maoyan and Shields-Zhou, Graham A. (2015) A global transition to ferruginous conditions in the early Neoproterozoic oceans. Nature Geoscience, 8 (6). pp. 466-470. ISSN 1752-0894 EISSN:1752-0908 DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2434

Smith, Martin R. and Harvey, Thomas H. P. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2015) The macro- and microfossil record of the Cambrian priapulid Ottoia. Palaeontology. ISSN ISSN: 0031-0239, ESSN: 1475-4983

Lenton, Timothy M. and Boyle, Richard A. and Poulton, Simon W. and Shields-Zhou, Graham A. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2014) Co-evolution of eukaryotes and ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic era. Nature Geoscience, 7 (4). pp. 257-265. ISSN 1752-0894 EISSN: 1752-0908 DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2108

Wilson, Lucy A. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2014) Sediment Effects on the Preservation of Burgess Shale–Type Compression Fossils. Palaios, 29 (4). pp. 145-154. ISSN 0833-1351 DOI https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2013.075

Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2014) Early evolution of the Eukaryota. Palaeontology, 58 (1). pp. 5-17. ISSN 00310239 DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/pala.12139

Ortega-Hernández, Javier and Esteve, Jorge and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2013) Humble origins for a successful strategy: complete enrolment in early Cambrian olenellid trilobites. Biology Letters, 9 (5). p. 20130679. ISSN 1744-9561, ESSN: 1744-957X DOI https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0679

Smith, Martin R. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2013) A new view on Nematothallus: coralline red algae from the Silurian of Gotland. Palaeontology, 56 (2). pp. 345-357. ISSN ISSN: 0031-0239, ESSN: 1475-4983 DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2012.01203.x

Yang, Jie and Ortega-Hernández, Javier and Butterfield, Nicholas J. and Zhang, Xi-guang (2013) Specialized appendages in fuxianhuiids and the head organization of early euarthropods. Nature, 494 (7438). pp. 468-471. ISSN 0028-0836 DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11874

Pawlowska, Maria M. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. and Brocks, Jochen J. (2012) Lipid taphonomy in the Proterozoic and the effect of microbial mats on biomarker preservation. Geology. ISSN 0091-7613, 1943-2682 DOI https://doi.org/10.1130/G33525.1

Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2012) Does cement-induced sulfate limitation account for Burgess Shale-type preservation? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (28). E1901. ISSN 0027-8424, 1091-6490 DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206878109

Beerling, David J. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2012) Plants and Animals as Geobiological Agents. In: Fundamentals of Geobiology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 188-204. ISBN 9781118280812

Butterfield, N. J. and Grotzinger, J. P. (2012) Palynology of the Huqf Supergroup, Oman. In: Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Neoproterozoic–Cambrian basins in Asia. Special publications (366). Geological Society of London, London, pp. 251-263. ISBN 978-1-86239-346-2

Harvey, Thomas H. P. and Vélez, Maria I. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2012) Exceptionally preserved crustaceans from western Canada reveal a cryptic Cambrian radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (5). pp. 1589-1594. DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1115244109

Butterfield, N. J. and Harvey, T. H. P. (2012) Small carbonaceous fossils (SCFs): a new measure of early Paleozoic paleobiology. Geology, 40 (1). pp. 71-74. ISSN Print ISSN 0091-7613 Online ISSN 1943-2682 DOI https://doi.org/10.1130/​G32580.1

Harvey, T. H. P. and Butterfield, N. J. (2012) Macro- and microfossils of the Mount Cap Formation (Early and Middle Cambrian, Northwest Territories). Geoscience Canada, 38 (4). pp. 165-173. ISSN ISSN: 1911-4850

Harvey, T. H. P. and Vélez, M. I. and Butterfield, N. J. (2012) Small carbonaceous fossils from the Earlie and Deadwood formations (middle Cambrian to lower Ordovician) of southern Saskatchewan; in Summary of Investigations 2012. Saskatchewan Geological Survey, 1 (Misc. ). pp. 1-8.

Butterfield, N. J. (2011) Terminal Developments in Ediacaran Embryology. Science, 334 (6063). 1655 -1656. DOI https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1216125

Cohen, Phoebe A. and Schopf, J. William and Butterfield, Nicholas J. and Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B. and Macdonald, Francis A. (2011) Phosphate biomineralization in mid-Neoproterozoic protists. Geology, 39 (6). 539 -542. DOI https://doi.org/10.1130/G31833.1

Butterfield, N. J. (2011) Was the Devonian radiation of large predatory fish a consequence of rising atmospheric oxygen concentration? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (9). E28. DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1018072108

Butterfield, N. J. (2011) Animals and the invention of the Phanerozoic Earth System. Trends in ecology evolution, 26 (2). pp. 81-87. ISSN 0169-5347 DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.11.012

Harvey, T. H. P. and Ortega-hernandez, J. and Lin, J-P and Yuanglong, Zhao and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2011) Burgess Shale-type microfossils from the middle Cambrian Kaili Formation, Guizhou Province, China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57 (2). pp. 423-436. ISSN ISSN: 0567-7920 EISSN: 1732-2421 DOI https://doi.org/10.4202/app.2011.0028

Butterfield, N. J. (2009) Modes of pre-Ediacaran multicellularity. Precambrian Research, 173 (1-4). pp. 201-211. DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2009.01.008

Brocks, J. J. and Butterfield, N. J. (2009) Biogeochemistry: Early animals out in the cold. Nature, 457 (7230). pp. 672-673. DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/457672a

Butterfield, N. J. (2009) Oxygen, animals and oceanic ventilation: an alternative view. Geobiology, 7 (1). p. 1. ISSN 14724677 DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4669.2009.00188.x

Balthasar, U. and Butterfield, N. J. (2009) Early Cambrian “soft-shelled” brachiopods as possible stem-group phoronids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54 (2). pp. 307-314. ISSN ISSN: 0567-7920 EISSN: 1732-2421 DOI https://doi.org/10.4202/app.2008.0042

Butterfield, N. J. (2009) Fossil preservation in the burgess shale. In: A Burgess Shale primer: history, geology and research highlights. Burgess Shale Consortium, Toronto, pp. 63-69. ISBN 9780981288505

Butterfield, N. J. (2009) Macroevolutionary turnover through the Ediacaran transition: ecological and biogeochemical implications. In: Global Neoproterozoic Petroleum Systems: The Emerging Potential in North Africa. Geological Society Special publications, 326 (326). Geological Society, London, pp. 53-64.

Harvey, T. H. P. and Butterfield, N. J. (2008) Sophisticated particle-feeding in a large Early Cambrian crustacean. Nature, 452. pp. 868-871. DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06724

Butterfield, N. J. (2008) An early Cambrian radula. Journal of Paleontology, 82 (3). pp. 543-554. DOI https://doi.org/10.1666/07-066.1

Butterfield, N. J. and Balthasar, U. and Wilson, L. A. (2007) Fossil diagenesis in the Burgess Shale. Palaeontology, 50 (3). pp. 537-543.

Butterfield, N. J. (2007) Macroevolution and macroecology through deep time. Palaeontology, 50 (1). pp. 41-55. DOI https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00613.x

Hackett, J. D. and Yoon, H. S. and Butterfield, N. J. and Sanderson, M. J. and Bhattacharya, D. (2007) Plastid endosymbiosis: sources and timing of the major events. In: Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, pp. 109-132. ISBN 978-0-12-370518-1

Butterfield, N. J. (2006) Hooking some stem-group "worms:" fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale. BioEssays, 28 (12). pp. 1161-1166. DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.20507

Peterson, K. J. and Butterfield, N. J. (2005) Origin of the Eumetazoa: testing ecological predictions of molecular clocks against the Proterozoic fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102. pp. 9547-9552. DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.050366010

Botting, Joseph P. and Butterfield, Nicholas J. (2005) Reconstructing early sponge relationships by using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102 (5). pp. 1554-1559. ISSN 1554-1559 DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405867102

Botting, J. P. and Butterfield, N. J. (2005) Reconstructing early sponge relationships using the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia globosa, Walcott. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102 (5). pp. 1554-1559. DOI https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405867102

Butterfield, N. J. (2005) Probable proterozoic fungi. Paleobiology, 31 (1). pp. 165-182. DOI https://doi.org/10.1666/0094-8373(2005)031<0165:PPF>2.0.CO;2

Butterfield, N. J. (2005) Reconstructing a complex early Neoproterozoic eukaryote, Wynniatt Formation, Victoria Island, arctic Canada. Lethaia, 38 (2). pp. 155-169. DOI https://doi.org/10.1080/00241160510013231

Butterfield, N. J. (2004) A vaucheriacean alga from the middle Neoproterozoic of Spitsbergen: implications for the evolution of Proterozoic eukaryotes and the Cambrian explosion. Paleobiology, 30. pp. 231-252. ISSN ISSN: 0094-8373

Butterfield, N. J. (2003) Exceptional fossil preservation and the Cambrian explosion. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43. pp. 166-177.

Butterfield, N. J. (2002) Leanchoilia guts and the interpretation of three-dimensional structures in Burgess Shale-type fossils. Paleobiology, 28. pp. 155-171. ISSN ISSN: 0094-8373

Butterfield, N. J. (2001) Cambrian food webs. In: Palaeobiology II: a synthesis. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 40-43. ISBN 978-0-632-05149-6

Budd, G. E. and Butterfield, N. J. and Jensen, S. (2001) Crustaceans and the "Cambrian explosion". Technical comment. Science, 294. 2047a. ISSN 0036-8075 (print), 1095-9203 (online)

Samuelsson, J. and Butterfield, N. J. (2001) Neoproterozoic fossils from the Franklin Mountains, northwestern Canada: stratigraphic and palaeobiological implications. Precambrian research, 107. pp. 235-251.

Butterfield, N. J. (2001) Paleobiology of the late Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1200 Ma) Hunting Formation, Somerset Island, arctic Canada. Precambrian Research, 111. pp. 235-256.

Butterfield, N. J. (2000) Ecology and evolution of the Cambrian plankton. In: Ecology of the Cambrian radiation. Perspectives in paleobiology & Earth history . Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 200-216. ISBN 9780231106139

Butterfield, N. J. (2000) Bangiomorpha pubescens n. gen., n. sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes. Paleobiology, 26. pp. 386-404. ISSN ISSN: 0094-8373

Villeneuve, M. E. and Butterfield, N. J. and Cook, D. G. and MacLean, B. C. and Rainbird, R. H. (1998) Age of the Cap Mountain (Northwest Territories) Proterozoic section, sequence B, based on detrital zircon ages. Current Research, Geological Survey of Canada, 1998-F. pp. 117-127.

Butterfield, N. J. and Rainbird, R. H. (1998) Diverse organic-walled fossils, including "possible dinoflagellates", from the early Neoproterozoic of arctic Canada. Geology, 26. pp. 963-966. ISSN 0091-7613, 1943-2682

Butterfield, N. J. (1997) Plankton ecology and the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. Paleobiology, 23. pp. 247-262. ISSN ISSN: 0094-8373

Harland, W. B. and Anderson, L. M. and Manasrah, D. and Butterfield, N. J. and Challinor, A. and Doubleday, P. A. and Dowdeswell, E. K. and Dowdeswell, J. A. and Geddes, I. and Kelly, S. R. A. and Lesk, E. L. and Spencer, A. M. and Stephens, C. F. (1997) The geology of Svalbard. Memoirs of the Geological Society of London . Geological Society, London, xviii, 521.

Butterfield, N. J. and Nicholas, C. J. (1996) Burgess Shale-type preservation of both non-mineralizing and "shelly" Cambrian organisms from the Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 70. pp. 893-899. ISSN 0022-3360

Butterfield, N. J. (1996) Fossil preservation in the Burgess Shale: reply. Lethaia, 29. pp. 109-112. ISSN print: 0024-1164 online: 1502-3931

Butterfield, N. J. (1995) Secular distribution of Burgess-Shale-type preservation. Lethaia, 28. pp. 1-13. ISSN print: 0024-1164 online: 1502-3931

Butterfield, N. J. (1994) Burgess-Shale type fossils from a Lower Cambrian shallow-shelf sequence in northwestern Canada. Nature, 369. pp. 477-479. ISSN 0028-0836

Butterfield, N. J. and Nicholas, C. J. (1994) Exceptionally preserved fossils from the Lower-Middle Cambrian Mount Cap Formation, Northwest Territories, Canada. Palaeontology Newsletter, 24. p. 16.

Butterfield, N. J. and Knoll, A. H. and Swett, K. (1994) Paleobiology of the Neoproterozoic Svanbergfjellet Formation, Spitsbergen. Fossils and Strata, 34. pp. 1-84.

Butterfield, N. J. (1993) A new Burgess Shale-type fossil assemblage from the Northwest Territories, Canada. Palaeontological Association Newsletter, 20. p. 10.

Butterfield, N. J. and Chandler, F. W. (1992) Palaeoenvironmental distribution of Proterozoic microfossils, with an example from the Agu Bay Formation, Baffin Island. Palaeontology, 35. pp. 943-957. ISSN 0031-0239

Butterfield, N. J. (1992) Pre-Ediacaran multicellular life: harbinger of a Phanerozoic radiation. In: Abstracts and Program, Fifth North American Paleontological Convention. Special publication / the Paleontological Society ;; no. 6; Variation: Special publication (Paleontological Society) ;; no. 6. . Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee,, Knoxville, TN.